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Affichage actuel
JUDICIAL
IMPLEMENTATION
OF
ARTICLE 3 OF THE
CONVENTION ON THE
RIGHTS OF THE CHILD
IN EUROPE
JUDICIAL IMPLEMENTATION OF
ARTICLE 3 OF THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD IN EUROPE
The case of migrant children including
unaccompanied children
JUDICIAL
IMPLEMENTATION
OF ARTICLE 3 OF THE
C
ON
v
ENTION
ON
THE
R
I
g
HT
s
OF
THE
C
HILD
IN
EUROPE
The case of migrant children including
unaccompanied children
Unicef
Office of the United
n
ations High
c
ommissioner for Human Rights
Regional Office for Europe.
June 2012.
C
ONTENT
s
Acknowledgements
.............................................................................................................
6
Abbreviations
.....................................................................................................................
6
s
ummary
...........................................................................................................................
7
Introduction
........................................................................................................................
9
A.
Migrant children and the
c
R
c
........................................................................
9
B.
Migrant children and regional and national jurisprudence
...............................
12
c
.
The objectives of this study
...........................................................................
14
C
HAPTER
I
Article 3 of the CRC in the case law of regional and national courts in Europe
.....................
16
A.
e
U law and the best interests of the child
.......................................................
16
B.
c
onvention for the Protection of Human Rights and
f
undamental
f
reedoms
(European Convention on Human Rights)
and the best interests of the child
............
18
c
.
n
ational law and the best interests of the child
...............................................
21
C
HAPTER
II
Applying article 3 of the CRC in age assessment proceedings
.............................................
23
A.
Different approaches to age assessment in
e
urope
........................................
24
B.
n
ational case law
......................................................................................
26
1.
Austria
......................................................................................
26
2.
f
rance
.......................................................................................
27
3.
i
reland
......................................................................................
30
4.
Spain
........................................................................................
33
5.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and
n
orthern
i
reland
....................
36
c
.
Good practice
............................................................................................
41
C
HAPTER
III
Article 3 of the CRC and durable solutions for children
......................................................
41
A.
c
hallenges to finding durable solutions in
e
urope
.........................................
44
B.
n
ational case law
......................................................................................
46
1.
Belgium
.....................................................................................
47
2.
f
rance
.......................................................................................
51
3.
Portugal
.....................................................................................
58
4.
Spain
........................................................................................
60
5.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and
n
orthern
i
reland
....................
63
c
.
Good practice
............................................................................................
67
C
HAPTER
I
v
Article 3 of the CRC in connection with access to basic social services and enjoyment
of other rights
...................................................................................................................
68
A.
Access to rights and social services in
e
U
Member States
................................
70
B.
n
ational case law
......................................................................................
71
1.
Belgium
....................................................................................
71
2.
f
rance
......................................................................................
73
3.
i
taly
..........................................................................................
76
4.
Spain
........................................................................................
78
5.
n
etherlands
...............................................................................
80
6.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and
n
orthern
i
reland
....................
81
c
.
Good practice
............................................................................................
84
C
HAPTER
v
Procedural safeguards, including the right of children to participate in proceedings
.............
86
A.
Persisting gaps in procedural safeguards for children in europe
........................
88
B.
n
ational case law
......................................................................................
89
1.
Austria
......................................................................................
89
2.
f
rance
.......................................................................................
90
3.
i
reland
......................................................................................
92
4.
i
taly
..........................................................................................
94
5.
Spain
........................................................................................
96
6.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and
n
orthern
i
reland
....................
98
c
.
Good practice
..........................................................................................
101
C
HAPTER
v
I
Conclusions and recommendations
..................................................................................
103
Annex
...........................................................................................................................
106
Consolidated list of good practices
.................................................................................
106
A.
Good practices on age assessment
.............................................................
106
B.
Good practices on durable solutions
...........................................................
106
c
.
Good practices on access to services
..........................................................
107
D.
Good practices on procedural safeguards
...................................................
108
List of cases referred to in the present study
.....................................................................
109
Austria
........................................................................................................
109
Belgium
........................................................................................................
109
f
rance
..........................................................................................................
109
i
reland
.........................................................................................................
109
i
taly
.............................................................................................................
110
Portugal
........................................................................................................
110
Spain
...........................................................................................................
110
n
etherlands
..................................................................................................
110
United Kingdom of Great Britain and
n
orthern
i
reland
.......................................
110
c
ourt of Justice of the
e
uropean Union
.............................................................
111
e
uropean
c
ourt of Human Rights
.....................................................................
111