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UNICEF - Uprooted

THE GROWING CRISIS FOR REFUGEE AND MIGRANT CHILDREN

Publié le mercredi 7 septembre 2016 , mis à jour le mercredi 7 septembre 2016

Source : UNICEF

CONTENTS

Foreword
Executive summary and key findings

[...]
« Protect child refugees and migrants, particularly unaccompanied children, from exploitation and violence Introduce measures to strengthen child protection systems, including the training of social and child workers and working with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and professional groups. Clamp down on trafficking, not only through enhanced law enforcement, but also by providing better support to migrant children through the systematic appointment of qualified guardians ; better access to information regarding their own situation and the management of their cases ; and access to legal assistance. Governments should also develop clearer guidance for case officers when determining the migration status of children, to prevent the return of children and families to persecution, dangerous or life-threatening situations, using the best interest of the child principle to guide legal decision-making in all cases. »
[...]

Introduction

THE GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

- WHO : The demography of childhood migration and displacement
- WHERE : The geography of childhood migration and displacement
- WHY : Factors that influence migration and displacement
- WHAT HAPPENS : The promise and potential peril of migration and displacement for children

[...]
« In 2015, nearly 100,000 unaccompanied or separated children filed claims for asylum in 78 countries. This startling total – primarily composed of Afghan, Eritrean, Syrian and Somali children – represented nearly a three-fold increase over the previous year and the highest number of applications since UNHCR began compiling these data in 2006.60 While the total number of applications for asylum are increasing for many vulnerable groups, applications from unaccompanied and separated children are an increasing share. These children’s applications made up just over 2 per cent of all applications in 2013 ; by 2015 they had nearly doubled to 5 per cent.
Whether children choose to travel on their own or are separated from their families over the course of their journeys, their vulnerability is heightened as long as they remain alone. They are not only exposed to the same types of dangers as children who travel with their families, but unaccompanied children also shoulder all the other burdens of financial support, navigating legal systems and establishing reliable social networks to protect themselves.
 »
[...]

THE REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE

- Africa

[...]
« Deteriorating conditions in the Horn of Africa have also led to increases in children travelling alone to the Middle East in search of opportunity. Like unaccompanied children in other regions, these children face both perilous journeys as well as the possibility of return to dangerous conditions in their home countries. »
[...]

- The Americas

[...]
« Other countries in the region with large numbers of conflict-related internal displacements include El Salvador (289,000), Guatemala (251,000), Mexico (287,000) and Honduras (174,000). The violence in these four countries is significant, not only for internal displacement, but also because these four countries are the origin of the most unaccompanied and separated children apprehended by immigration authorities at the southern border of the United States. »
[...]
ISSUE IN FOCUS : Unaccompanied and separated children on the move in the Americas

« Between October 2008 and July 2009, just over 3,300 unaccompanied and separated children from Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador were apprehended by immigration authorities at the southern border of the United States. »
[...]

- Asia
- Europe
- Oceania

THE POLICY PERSPECTIVE

- An Agenda for Action on Children, Migration and Displacement

« - Protect child refugees and migrants, particularly unaccompanied children, from exploitation and violence

Introduce measures to strengthen child protection systems, including the training of social and child workers and working with NGOs and professional groups. Clamp down on trafficking, not only through enhanced law enforcement, but also by providing better support to migrant children through the systematic appointment of qualified guardians ; better access to information regarding their own situation and the management of their cases ; and access to legal assistance. Governments should also develop clearer guidance for case officers when determining the migration status of children, to prevent the return of children and families to persecution, dangerous or life-threatening situations, using the best interest of the child principle to guide legal decision-making in all cases.

- End the detention of children seeking refugee status or migrating

Introduce practical alternatives to detention wherever children (or their families) are involved, given the negative impact of detention on a child’s development. Children are particularly vulnerable to physical and psychological violence. Examples of alternatives to detention include : the surrender of passport and regular reporting requirements ; guarantors or bailees who may be family members or community supporters ; foster care and supervised independent living for unaccompanied and separated children ; and compulsory registration with authorities. »

APPENDICES

- A call for better data
- Endnotes
- Regional classifications
- Tables : Children, migration and displacement

Rapport disponible en format pdf ci-dessous

Voir en ligne : http://www.unicef.org/videoaudio/PD...


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